Verb modifiers change form depending on whether they are used in the present, past, or future.

-는 means present.
ㄴ/은 is for the past.

And -ㄹ/을 indicates the future.

In this lesson, let’s practice expressions with the verb changed to -ㄹ/을.

The verb modifier “-ㄹ/을”.

Modifiers of the future.

When you want to add future meanings to nouns, change the verb form to -ㄹ/을.

What the verb ‘-ㄹ/을’ means.

식사 후에 약을 먹어요.
Take the medicine after meals.


식사 후에 먹을 약이에요.
It’s a medicine I take after a meal.

The expression changes from talking about “taking medicine after a meal” to “medicine to take after a meal”.

It is characterized by sentences in which the noun is emphasized rather than the action.

How to use “-ㄹ/을”.

-ㄹ/을 is also combined with the verb stem.

Av + -ㄹ/을

보다 + -ㄹ/을 =
주다 + -ㄹ/을 =
하다 + -ㄹ/을 =

입다 + -ㄹ/을 = 입
넣다 + -ㄹ/을 = 넣

살다 + -ㄹ/을 =
듣다 + -ㄹ/을 = 들을
돕다 + -ㄹ/을 = 도울

No patchum in the stem

이거는 이따가 집에 가서 마실 맥주예요.
This is the beer I’ll be drinking later when I get home.
친구네 집들이 때 선물을 찾으려고 해요.
I’m trying to find a housewarming gift for a friend.
이거는 내일까지 외울 단어들입니다.
These are the words you will learn by tomorrow.

Add -ㄹ for verbs without patchum.

Have a patchum in the stem

사람이 많아서 어디 앉을 자리가 없네요.
So many people, nowhere to sit.
이거는 된장찌개에 넣을 재료예요.
These are the ingredients for Doenjang Jjigae.
놀러 갈 때 입을이 없어서 새로운 걸 사고 싶어요.
I don’t have any clothes to wear when I go out to hang out, I need something new.

Use -을 when the stem of a word has a patchum.

Cases of irregular changes.


국민 모두에게 ‘ 권리‘가 있습니다.
All citizens have the “right to know”.

Since there is in the patchum, we only need to exclude 다.

Part of ㄷpatchum

지하철을 탈 때 들을이 들어간 음악 플레이어예요.
It’s a music player with songs to listen to when riding the subway.

After ㄷ changes to ㄹ, use -을.

Part of ㅂpatchum

더 이상 그를 도울 사람은 없을 겁니다.
I can think of no one who would help him more.

Where ㅂ patchim becomes 우, and -ㄹ enters.

Commonly used words and expressions.

Expressions you want to memorize as they are.

Some expressions using -ㄹ/을 are better learned as they are.

잠깐 드릴 말씀이 있습니다.
I need to talk to you about something.
이 많아서 정신이 없어요.
I have a lot to do and I’m busy.
영어를 배우고 싶지만 바빠서 그럴 시간이 없어요.
I would like to learn English, but I am too busy to do so.

You must be able to come up with these words quickly without having to think about every single sentence pattern.

The expression “-ㄹ 때” is another modifier.

A noun often combined with -ㄹ/을 is 때.

엑스레이를 찍을 숨을 참으세요.
Hold your breath when you take the x-ray.
로그인할 아이디와 비빌번호를 입력하세요.
Please enter your ID and password when you log in.
운동할는 준비운동부터 하세요.
When you exercise, you start with warm-up exercises.

In other words, -ㄹ 때 is expression using -ㄹ/을.

In some cases, there is no difference from the present tense.

In some cases -ㄹ/을 also has the same nuance as the present tense -는, depending on the nouns combined.

요즘은 바빠서 밥 먹을 시간이 없어요.
I’ve been so busy lately that I haven’t had time to try to eat lunch.
요즘은 바빠서 밥 먹는 시간이 없어요.
I’ve been so busy lately that I haven’t had time to eat lunch.

In this case, is there “no time to try to eat” or is there “no time to eat”?

Both “can’t take time off for eating” are the same.

Expressions like ‘드릴 말씀’ should be memorized as a fixed phrase.