There are two types of modifiers in Korean: those using verbs and those using adjectives.

Let’s practice changing verbs to -ㄴ/은 this time.

The verb modifier “ㄴ/은”.

Modifiers of the past.

When you want to add past meanings to nouns, change the verb form to -ㄴ/은.

The verb modifier “ㄴ/은”.

저는 한국어 책을 읽었어요.
I read the Korean book.


제가 읽은 책은 한국어 책이에요.
What I read is a Korean book.

When the verb is -ㄴ/은, the position also comes before the noun.

How to use “ㄴ/은” of the verb.

The presence or absence of a stem patchum is also important when using verbs as modifiers.

Av + -ㄴ/은

보다 + -ㄴ/은 =
만나다 + -ㄴ/은 = 만
공부하다  + -ㄴ/은 = 공부

먹다 + -ㄴ/은 = 먹
찍다 + -ㄴ/은 = 찍

열다 + -ㄴ/은 =
듣다 + -ㄴ/은 = 들은
돕다 + -ㄴ/은 = 도운

No patchum in the stem

일본에 여행 갔을 때 만난 사람이에요.
I met this person when I traveled to Japan.
영국은 제가 태어난 나라예요.
England is the country of my birth.
아까 통화한 사람은 직장 동료예요.
The person I just called is a colleague of mine at work.

Have a patchum in the stem

그건 전라도에 갔을 때 찍은 사진이에요.
That’s a picture I took when I was in Jeolla Province.
삶은 닭고기는 다이어트에 좋은 음식입니다.
Boiled chicken is a good diet food.
이거는 2차대전 때 할아버지가 친구한테 받은 편지입니다.
This is a letter my grandfather received from a friend during WWII.

When the stem has no patchum, use -ㄴ, and when it does, use -은.

Cases of irregular changes.


비성수기는 문을 식당이 많지 않습니다.
Not many cafeterias are open during the off-season

The ㄹ of the patchum will drop out and -ㄴ will enter.

Part of ㄷpatchum

20대 여성들이 가장 많이 들은 음악입니다.
This is the music that women in their 20s listened to the most.

Some ㄷpatchum vocabulary uses -은 after ㄷ changes to ㄹ.

Part of ㅂpatchum

한국전쟁 당시 한국을 도운 나라가 63개국입니다.
At the time of the Korean War, 63 countries helped Korea.

The ㅂ of the patchum replaces the 우, and the -ㄴ enters there.

What to watch out for with the verb “-ㄴ/은” and its application.

Difference from the adjective “-ㄴ/은”.

The -ㄴ/은 verbs and adjectives are easy to confuse because they are apparently used in the same way.

Verb “-ㄴ/은”

이거는 작년에 여행 갔을 때  옷이에요.
This is an outfit I bought last year when I went on vacation.

Adjective “-ㄴ/은”

거기는 아주 을 많이 팔아요.
They sell a lot of very cheap clothes there.

The verb -ㄴ/은 relates to an action, whereas the adjective implies its characteristics.

Note that although the shapes are similar, the meanings are quite different.

Let’s use it in combination with various nouns.

Use -ㄴ/은 in combination with various nouns.

예전에 친구랑 자주 놀러 이에요.
It’s a place where I used to hang out with friends.
대만은 제가 처음으로 혼자 여행 이에요.
Taiwan was the first place I traveled to by myself.
태풍이 왔지만 다행히 피해를 입은이 없습니다.
The typhoon hit, but fortunately no place was damaged.

For example, when combined with 곳, which denotes a place, the nuance becomes “a place where an action was taken or something was done.

If you connect sentences, there is no limit to the number of ways you can express yourself.

Modifiers such as -ㄴ/은 can be added before and after various expressions to expand the range of expression at once.

어제 술집에서 마신이 맥주와 소주예요.
The drinks we had at the pub yesterday were beer and sojoo.
어렸을 때 이지만 기억이 없습니다.
I lived there as a child, but I don’t remember it.
동네 마트에서 구입한 고등어가 너무 맛있어서 친구들한테도 권하고 싶어요.
The mackerel I bought at a nearby mart is so delicious that I want to recommend it to my friends.

The longer the sentence, the more difficult it will be, but it will also improve your ability to express yourself.

If you find yourself confusing ㄴ/은 with adjectives, compare the verb and the adjective carefully.