Let’s practice the serial forms of verbs.

A collative form is a word that adds meaning to the front of a noun, as in “a person running.

How do we use verbs in the serial form?

Verb and modifiers.

Verbs are also transformed when they come before nouns.

Verbs are words that describe movement or change, but when we use verbs to modify nouns, we get the following.

Verbs by adjective.

저는 커피를 마셔요.
I drink coffee.

Transformation by position.

제가 마시는 커피예요.
This is the coffee I’m drinking.

By putting a verb in front of a noun, the verb changes into a word that expresses its characteristics and properties.

How to use “-는”.

Whether the stem has a patchum or not, all you have to do is add -는.

Av + -는

가다 + -는 = 가
마시다 + -는 = 마시
공부하다 + -는 = 공부하
좋아하다 + -는 = 좋아하

먹다 + -는 = 먹
잡다 + -는 = 잡

살다 + -는 = 사
팔다 + -는 = 파

※Av = an action verb

지금은 쉬는 시간조차 아까워요.
I don’t even have time to rest now.
먹는 시간이 있으면 자고 싶어요.
If I have time to eat, I want to sleep.
외국어 학습은 매일 공부하는 습관이 중요합니다.
The habit of studying every day is important for foreign language learning.

If there is a patchum in the stem, the pronunciation changes as in 먹는 [멍는].

Verbs with ㄹ-patchim lose ㄹ.

In the case of a lexeme with a ㄹ-patchme in the stem, -는 is added where the patchme has dropped out.

어떤 집에 사는 사람일까?
I wonder what kind of house he lives in?
저렴한 빵을 파는 빵집입니다.
It’s a bakery selling cheap bread.

Such changes are also true for -ㅂ니다 and -세요.

Various nuances of “-는”.

Nuances change depending on context.

The nuances of -는 are not always the same.

노래는 못하지만 춤을 잘 추는 사람이에요.
He’s a bad singer but a good dancer.
모르는 있으면 언제나 물어보세요.
If you have any questions, please ask me anytime.
그냥 아는 사람이에요.
Just an acquaintance.

There are also modifiers on the displays you see at train stations.

The displays you see at stations.



You shuld learn these things as they are.

Indicates an ongoing or sustained action, etc.

Verb modifiers also have nuances like the present progressive.

내가 다니는 학원은 종로에 있습니다.
The cram school I go to is in Jongno.
저 신문을 보는 사람이 누구예요?
Who is looking at that newspaper?
우리 회사에서 가장 많이 팔리는 제품입니다.
It is our best-selling product.

In this case, it means what you’re doing now or recently.

있다 and 없다 are special vocabulary.

Although 있다 and 없다 are adjectives, they are treated more like verbs and use -는 as a modifier.

맛있는 한국요리를 먹고 싶어요.
I want to eat good Korean food.
재미없는 내용이었고 시간 낭비였습니다.
It was boring and a waste of time.
가방에 있는 물건을 다시 한번 확인했어요?
Have you checked again what is in your bag?

You learn 있다 and 없다 as special examples.

As with adjectives, try practicing in different ways, switching the order before and after nouns as well as adjectives.