Use ‘-입니다’ or ‘-이/가 아니다’ to talk about “things” etc. instead of people.

Today’s topic is ‘이것/그것/저것’.

 How to use ‘이것/그것/저것’.

Talking about things “-이다”.

Here we use “-이다” to talk about things too.

Talking about things.

아버지는 회사원입니다.
My father is an office worker.


이것은 배추입니다.
This is napa cabbage.

This alone easily doubles the number of things that can be expressed.

Positional relationship to what you are pointing at is important.

이것/그것/저것 are used based on their positional relationship to the thing to which they refer.

The one closest to the speaker is ‘이것’.

이것 refers to something close to the speaker.

It is “그것” for something close to the listener.

그것 refers to something close to the listener, and from the listener’s point of view, it is 이것.

Things that are far from each other are ‘저것’.

저 것 refers to something remote and, as a rule, visible.

‘그것’ refers to things that are invisible to each other.

Use 그것 for “that” which is invisible.

Let’s express ownership and attributes together.

With -의, you can also express its owner, attributes, etc.

이것은 한국 잡지입니다.
This is a Korean magazine.
그것은 친구 편지입니다.
It’s a letter from a friend.
저것은 올해 달력입니다.
That’s this year’s calendar.
그것옛날 사진입니다.
That’s an old picture.

-의 is often omitted.

“이거, 그거, 저거” are used more in conversation.

Let’s learn even more shortened forms of those combined with postpositions.

In conversation, shortened versions of ‘이것, 그것, 저것’ are often used.


writing 이것 그것 저것
spearking 이거 그거 저거


writing 이것이 그것이 저것이
spearking 이게 그게 저게


writing 이것은 그것은 저것은
spearking1 이거는 그거는 저거는
spearking2 이건 그건 저건


writing 이것을 그것을 저것을
spearking1 이거를 그거를 저거를
spearking2 이걸 그걸 저걸

These will take some time to get used to hearing.

이거는 제 핸드폰입니다.
This is my mobile phone.
그거는 우리 회사 신분증입니다.
That’s our company ID.
저거는 언니의 자전거입니다.
That’s my sister’s bicycle.
아까 그거는 그냥 수돗물입니다.
That was just tap water.

Abbreviations should be actively learned too.

Learn a word.

지갑 wallet 시계 clock
가방 bag 안경 glasses
pen 연필 pencil
지우개 eraser book
사전 dictionary 휴지 tissue
노트북 computer 휴대폰 mobile phone
거울 mirror 화장품 cosmetic

Ask questions with interrogatives.

When you don’t know what it is, use “무엇” or “얼마”.

If you are unsure about what 이것 or 그것 is referring to, use question words.

이게 무엇입니까?
What is this?
그게 얼마입니까?
How much is that?
저건 무슨 고기입니까?
What meat is that?

If you don’t know the name or type use 무엇 or 무슨, if you want to know the amount or quantity use 얼마.

What is the short form of 무엇?

무엇 also has a shortened form.

그게 입니까?
What is that?
대체 가 문제입니까?
What on earth is the problem?

무엇 will be used more often in the form of .

It is also worth remembering that ‘뭐입니까’ is more often pronounced shortened to “뭡니까” in conversation.

Other cases related to distance.

Distance in the use of “이・그・저”.

“이, 그, 저” is used to refer to specific things.

이 무슨 책입니까?
What is this book about?
사진은 누구입니까?
Who is in the picture?
 건물이 뭡니까?
What is that building?

The distance and usage can be considered the same as “이것, 그것, 저것”.

“여기, 거기, 저기” to indicate a place or location.

“여기, 거기, 저기” which indicate a place or location, are also similar.

여기가 서울박물관입니다.
This is the Seoul Museum.
거기는 지금은 지하철역입니다.
The place is now a subway station.
저기는 옛날의 병원입니다.
There’s the old hospital.

This is also similar to “이, 그, 저”.

Which is supposed to be “어느”?

The word “which” becomes 어느, but for some reason 어떤 is often used.

어떤 것이 제 가방입니까?
Which is my bag?
어떤 게 내 신발입니까?
Which is my shoe?
어떤 건물이 은행입니까?
Which building is a bank.

Let’s remember this as it is.

Let’s practice by actually pointing to “이거, 그거” and so on.