Usually, -아요/-어요 is used according to the vowel in the stem, but some words do not change according to the rules.

Here we will practice patterns that change in a special way.

What is the irregularity conjugation of “-아요/-어요”?

As with the past tense, there are cases where the change does not follow the principle.

When using the past tense, some vocabulary words are combined with -았/었 after the stem is transformed.

집에서 음악을 들었습니다.
I listened to music at home.

When 듣다 is in the past tense, it becomes “들었다” instead of 듣었다, and this is called irregular conjugation.

This does not happen only in the past tense, however.

저는 영어로 라디오를 들어요.
I listen to the radio in English.

듣다 becomes 들어요 instead of 듣어요, and the change occurs as in the past tense.

By the way, this irregular change can be divided into two categories those in which a sound dropout occurs and those in which the stem sound changes.

Pattern of sound dropout.

The vowel “으” in the stem is lost.

After the stem 으 drops out, -아요/어요 is added.

아프다+ -아요 ⇒ 아아요 → 아파요
(ㅡ + ㅏ ⇒ ㅏ)

다 + -아요 ⇒ 담ㄱ + 아요 → 담가요

The stem 으 drops out, and -아요/어요 is added.

어제부터 머리가 아파요.
I have a headache since yesterday.
우리 집에서는 엄마가 김치를 담가요.
In my family, my mother pickles kimchi.
불꽃이 정말 예뻐요.
The fireworks are really beautiful.

The 으 is weaker than other vowels, even if you try to pronounce 크어요 faster, it becomes “커요”.

ㅅ patchm words「ㅅ불규칙」

In ㅅ patchm words, the “ㅅ” is dropped out.

낫다 + -어요 → + -어요 = 나어

긋다 + -어요 → + -어요 = 그어

The stem ㅅ drops out, and -아요/어요 is added.

가마솥에 한가득 밥을 지어요.
I cook rice to fill the rice cooker .
아이는 상처가 금방 나아요.
Children heal quickly from wounds.
중요한 부분 밑에 선을 그어요.
Draw a line under the important parts.

잇다 and 붓다 are also commonly used vocabulary.

ㅎ patchm words「ㅎ불규칙」

This is a case where the pronunciation changes while the ‘ㅎ’ drops out, except for some words such as 좋다.

빨갛다 + -아요 ⇒ 빨가 + 요 → 빨개

어떻다+ -어요 ⇒ 어떠 + 요 → 그래

After the sound drops out, the pronunciation also changes.

하늘이 너무 파래요.
The sky is so blue.
토마토와 사과는 색깔이 빨개요.
Tomatoes and apples are red in color.
까마귀는 온몸이 까매요.
Crows are black all over.

This is also the pattern that makes 어떻다 become 어때요.

irregularity conjugation in which the sound of the stem changes.

ㅂ patchm words「ㅂ불규칙」

Some words with ㅂpatcham in the stem change pronunciation during conjugation.

고맙다 + -어요 → 고마 + -어요 = 고마워요

다 + -어요 → 더 + + -어요 = 더워요

ㅂ patchim becomes “우” and -아요/어요 is combined with it.

올해 여름은 정말 더워요.
This summer is very hot!
서울은 도쿄보다 훨씬 추워요.
Seoul is much colder than Tokyo.
이 불닭은 저한테는 엄청 매워요.
This buldak is really hot for me.

Incidentally, there are also words like 돕다 and 곱다 that become “ㅂ→오”.

돕다 → 도와요
곱다 → 고와요

But the majority can be considered become -워요.

ㄷ patchm words「ㄷ불규칙」

Some vocabulary, ㄷ become ㄹ.

다 + -어요 → 실 + -어요 = 실어요 (싣어요×)

깨닫다 + -아요  → 깨달 + -어요 = 깨달아요 (깨닫아요×)

ㄷ become , and -아요/어요 is combined with it.

그 짐은 이 차에 실어요.
We’ll put that baggage in this car.
지하철역까지 얼마나 걸어요?
How long is the walk to the subway station?
내 말 다 알아들어요?
Do you know what I’m talking about?

The reason why ‘ㄷ’ changes to ‘ㄹ’ is that the same place in the mouth (behind the front teeth) is used for pronunciation.

Therefore, ㄷ will not be ㄱ.

르 patchm words「르불규칙」

If there is a 르 in the stem, the ㅡ is dropped and another ㄹ is added to it.

모르다 + -아요 → 모ㄹㄹ + -어요 = 몰라

누르다 + -어요  → 누ㄹㄹ + -어요 = 눌러

르 becomes “-ㄹ라/-ㄹ러”.

그거는 나도 몰라요.
I don’t know about that too.
일단 재생버튼을 눌러요.
For now, please press the play button.
현주씨는 영어로도 노래를 불러요.
Ms. Hyunjoo also sings in English.

You should also learn 몰라요 and 불러요.

It is difficult to speak while thinking of every irregular change in your head.

Practice until the words come out on their own.