Koreans usually use “-요” rather than “-ㅂ니다/습니다”.

In this time, let’s practice “-요” which is often used in daily conversation.

Difference between “습니다” and “-아요/어요”.

It’s used “-요” more than “-ㅂ니다”.

“-요” is a more commonly used Korean word than “-ㅂ니다/습니다”.

Nouns+이다 -입니다 -예요

What has been communicated using “-ㅂ니다/습니다” can also be expressed with “-아요/어요”.

While “-ㅂ니다/습니다” is often used in formal situations in a formal manner, “-아요/어요” gives a softer impression.

How to use “-아요/어요/여요”.

“-아요/어요” also change the combination to match the stem of the verb or adjective.

Vst + -아요/어요/여요

받다 + -아요 = 받아요
놀다 + -아요 = 놀아요

먹다 + -어요 = 먹어요
신다 + -어요 = 신어요

공부하다 + -여요 = 공부해요
따뜻하다 + -여요 = 따뜻해요

※Vst = stem of verbs or adjectives.

The usage is similar to “-았/였”.

The stem vowel has ‘아,오’.

영수증을 꼭 받아요.
I always get a receipt.
오랜만에 조카랑 같이 놀아요.
It’s been a while since I play with my nephew.
민경씨는 나보다 키가 작아요.
Ms. Mingyong is shorter than me.
이 바지는 기장이 좀 짧아요.
These pants have a little short hem.

When the stem vowel has ‘아,오’, it is combined with -아요.

No ‘아,오’ in the vowels.

학생식당에서 국밥을 먹어요.
I eat kuppa at the student cafeteria.
난 야채가 싫어요.
I hate vegetables.
저는 매일 청바지를 신어요.
I wear jeans every day.
저는 회사에서는 양복을 입어요.
I wear a suit in the office.

When no ‘아,오’ in the vowels, it is combined with -어요.

Why does 하다 become “해요”?

The stem of 하다 is -여요 to become “하여”, but it is actually used in the “해요” form.

요즘 스페인어를 공부해요.
I am studying Spanish.
나는 고기보다 생선을 좋아해요.
I like fish better than meat.
여기는 바람이 시원해요.
The wind feels good here.
오늘은 어제보다 따뜻해요.
Today is warmer than yesterday.

하여 becomes 해요 because it simplifies the pronunciation.

하다 + -여요 = 하여요 → 요 →
(ㅏ + ㅕ = ㅒ)

Don’t think about the details and remember that 하다 becomes “해요”.

Cases in which omission or shortening of sentence patterns occurs.

If similar vowels follow, one is omitted.

If the vowel in the stem and “-아/어” sound alike, the vowel may be omitted from the pronunciation.

가다 + -아요 = 가아요 →
(ㅏ + ㅏ = ㅏ)

서다 + -어요 = 서어요 →
(ㅓ + ㅓ = ㅓ)

One is omitted because it is followed by the same vowel.

잠깐 주민센터에 가요.
I’m going to the Residents’ Center for a minute.
오늘은 친척을 만나요.
I’m seeing relatives today.
사람들이 많이 줄을 서요.
There are a lot of people lined up.


Pronunciation changes to double vowels.

The combination of the stem vowel with -아요/어요, shortening of sentence patterns occurs.

보다 + -아요 = 보아요 →
(ㅗ + ㅏ = ㅘ)

마시다 + -어요 = 마시어요 → 마
(ㅣ + ㅓ = ㅕ)

Short vowels combine to form “double vowels”.

친구하고 대학로에서 영화를 봐요.
I watch a movie with my friend in Daehak-ro.
고기집에서 혼자 맥주를 마셔요.
I drink beer alone at a barbecue restaurant.
민기씨는 정말 약속시간에 와요?
Is Mingi really coming at the appointed time?

These are attempts to pronounce them quickly, causing the consecutive short vowels to become double vowels.

There are also patterns in -아요/어요 that do not change according to the rules, so let’s learn these a little at a time as well.

There is a lot to learn about 요, so let’s do it a little at a time.