Once you can talk about people and things using “-이다, 아니다”, the next word is 있다/없다.

This is used when talking about the presence or absence of a person or thing.

How to use ‘있다/없다’.

An expression that can be used for both people and things.

The unique feature of 있다/없다 is that it can be used for both people and things.

People and things.

남자가 있다
There’s a man.

강아지가 없다
There are no puppies.

귤이 있다
There are tangerine.

It’s very simple!

Let’s describe family relationships.

The particle -이/가 is used according to the noun.

N + -이/가 있다, 없다

사과 + 있다 = 사과가 있습니다.
쌀  + 있다 = 쌀이 있습니다.

배  + 없다 = 배가 없습니다.
술  + 없다 = 술이 없습니다.

※N = Nouns

Let’s describe family relationships.

저는 아버지가 없습니다.
I have no father.
상우씨는 형제가 있습니까?
Sangwoo, do you have any siblings?

If the ending is -습니까, it becomes a question sentence.

저는 형이 있습니다. 형은 운동선수입니다.
I have an older brother. He is an athlete.
저는 언니가 있습니다. 그런데 언니는 의사가 아닙니다.
I have an older sister. But she’s not a doctor.

In this way, you can also talk about your relatives and friends briefly.

Points for successful use of 있다/없다.

Let’s use the word with the word for how much.

Let’s use it to describe the degree.

빵가루가 조금 있습니다.
There are a few breadcrumbs.
후추가 전혀 없습니다.
There is no pepper at all.
소금이 많이 있습니까?
Do you have a lot of salt?

Words like “많이, 조금” could be used to describe the situation in more detail.

Let’s use it with words that indicate location.

있다/없다 is effective when used with the word for location.

엄마는 지금은 집에 있습니다.
Mom is home now.
누나는 방에 없습니다.
My sister is not in her room.
화장실이 어디에 있습니까?
Where is the restroom?

If you are unsure of the location, use 어디.

Let’s add a word that tells you where it is.

It’s more effective if you add a location, position words.

식당 앞에 횡단보도가 있습니다.
There is a crosswalk in front of the restaurant.
저 건물 뒤에 병원이 있습니다.
There is a hospital behind that building.
계란은 냉장고 안에 있습니다.
Eggs are in the fridge.

You should must be able to express where people and things are.

Location, position words

왼 쪽 오른 쪽

아래 is used for relatively open distances or large spaces, while 밑 tends to be used when the distance is close or in contact.

Practice with things you have in your room, etc.