“Here’s the salt and there’s the sugar.”
“Vinegar in this bottle, soy sauce in that bottle.”
“This one, that one, that one…”

The characteristic of this kind of talk is that it can be followed by any number of stories.

Here you will learn grammar that can be used for such conversations.

What is a “multiple, enumerated” expression?

Connecting more and more stories together.

-고 is an expression used when talking about multiple contents in a row.

Multiple contents.

①민기씨는 일을 잘해요.
Mr. Mingi is a good worker.

그리고 성격도 좋아요.
And he has a nice personality.

그리고 잘 생겨요.
And he’s handsome.


④민기씨는 일을 잘하 성격도 좋 잘 생기
Mr. Mingi is a good worker, has a great personality, is handsome…

Put a number of sentences together and connect them.

Let’s imagine that we use 그리고 to join together sentences that were expressed separately.

How to use “-고”.

You can make sentences are added to the stem of verbs and adjectives with “-고”.

Vst + -고

가다 + -고 = 가
싸다 + -고 = 싸
이다 + -고 = 이
만나다 + -고 = 만나

닫고 + -고 = 닫
입다 + -고 = 입
둥글다 + -고 = 둥글
건강하다 + -고 = 건강하

찾았다 + -고 = 찾았고
맞았다 + -고 = 맞았고
이었다 + -고 = 이었고
공부했다 + -고 = 공부했고

※Vst = stem of verbs or adjectives.

친구를 만나고 영화도 볼 거예요.
I plan to meet friends and watch a movie.
한국음식은 싸고 맛있어요.
Korean food is cheap and delicious.
나는 돈카스를 시켰고 누나는 제육볶음을 주문했어요.
I ordered the pork cutlet and my sister ordered the spicy pork stir fry.

When used with the past tense, add -고 after ‘-았/었/였’.

Use “이다” for nouns.

If you want to connect nouns with -고, use -이다.

아빠는 쉰 한 살이고 엄마는 마흔 여덟 살입니다.
My father is 51 and my mother is 48.
신발은 36000원이었고 바지는 49000원이었어요.
Shoes were 36,000 won and pants were 49,000 won.

In other words -이고.

지수씨는 미용사 민숙씨는 학교 선생님이에요.
Jisoo is a hairdresser and Minsuk is a school teacher.

However, nouns without a patchum can be given -고 as they are.

How to use “-고” a little better.

Use past tense only at the end of a sentence.

If the subject is the same in a past topic, use the past tense only at the end of the sentence.

요리가 저렴하고 맛있었어요.
The food was inexpensive and delicious.
카페는 사람도 없고 조용했어요.
The cafe was quiet and empty.
연말연시는 매일 일찍 자고 일찍 일어났습니다.
I went to bed early and got up early every day during the year-end and New Year’s holidays.

This way the text will be simpler.

Sometimes ‘-요’ is added in colloquial speech.

In colloquial speech, some people pronounce as -구, while others add 요 and say -고요.

여기는 비가 많이 오구 습도가 높아요.
It rains a lot here and it is very humid.
2층에는 남자 화장실은 없구 여자 화장실만 있습니다.
There are no men’s restrooms on the second floor, only women’s restrooms.
대현씨 고향은 인천이고요 은경씨는 서울 출신이에요.
Tae-hyun’s hometown is Incheon and Eun-gyung is from Seoul.

-고요 is often used in interviews with celebrities, it is a good idea to pay attention to how they speak.

The basic sound is -고, so when practicing, try to pronounce it properly instead of -구.